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Andrzej Pazur
Mirosław Witoś
Andrzej Szelmanowski
Jerzy Borowski
Wojciech Wróblewski


In the XXI century, magnetic sensors and measurements are widely used in many diverse applications. The aspects of magnetic measurements and deviation in the Magnetic Heading System (MHS) and the Helmet Mounted Cueing System (HMCS) onboard civilian and military aircraft have been presented. In the beginning, the magnetometers market and application area, and the corresponding sensor measuring ranges and errors are presented. Next, the considerations focused on the theory of magnetic deviation considering the influence of soft and hard iron and the magnetic field generated by electrical devices. The mathematical relationships describing the components of the magnetic deviation and measurement path were given. Then, an innovative element is a simulation model, developed in the Matlab-Simulink package, enabling the determination of 2D horizontal deviation and 3D spatial deviation for the given spatial orientation angles. Finally, the selected results of the research are presented. The exemplary results of the analysis of magnetic deviation occurring on military airplanes are shown. The purposefulness of using harmonic analysis to improve the accuracy of deviation compensation, especially in HMCS applications, was indicated. The purposefulness of 3D deviation analysis has been demonstrated. Based on the conducted research, the developed 3D deviation model and the residual deviation properties measured in the vicinity of the aircraft were verified. The need to provide a 3D deviation model based on experimental data was indicated. Experimental data made it possible to determine the azimuth of the occurrence of the greatest deviation value during ground surveys of the aircraft population.


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Pazur, A., Witoś, M., Szelmanowski, A., Borowski, J., & Wróblewski, W. (2023). MEASURE AND ANALYSIS OF 3D MAGNETIC DEVIATION IN AERONAUTICAL MAGNETIC HEADING SYSTEMS AND HELMET MOUNTED CUEING SYSTEM. Aviation and Security Issues, 4(2).


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