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Adrian Smagło
Mateusz Matyszewski
Paweł Lejba


This paper presents an analysis of how an object’s position above the horizon affects laser measurements obtained in laser station in Borowiec. The objects used for this analysis were active satellites from LEO (Low Earth Orbit) and MEO (Medium Earth Orbit) regimes, as well as space debris from LEO regime. The data used for this analysis spanned from the second half of 2016 to the first half of 2023. The results of tests performed at the BORL station indicate that for LEO objects, it is least effective to make observations when the object is close to the zenith, i.e. 80–90 degrees above the horizon. The highest returns are obtained when the object is at an elevation of 20–39 degrees. These results apply to both active satellites and space debris objects from the LEO regime. In the case of MEO satellites the highest returns are received when the object is at an elevation of 50–79 degrees.


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Smagło, . A., Matyszewski, M., & Lejba, P. (2023). ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE OBJECT’S ELEVATION ON LASER MEASUREMENTS OBTAINED IN BOROWIEC IN 2016–2023. Aviation and Security Issues, 4(2).


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